Alexandra Walsh From tales spun for her teddies when she was a child usually about mermaids to film scripts, plays and novels, Alexandra Walsh has always been a storyteller. Words are her world. For over 25 years, she has been a journalist writing for a wide range of publications including national newspapers and glossy magazines. She spent some years working in the British film industry, as well as in television and radio:
Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Art Institute of Chicago An important aspect of modernism is how it relates to tradition through its adoption of techniques like reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody in new forms. The photo shows the old building with the addition of one of the contemporary glass towers to the exterior by Ian Ritchie Architects with the closeup of the modern art tower.
Eliot made significant comments on the relation of the artist to tradition, including: On the one hand Schoenberg rejected traditional tonal harmonythe hierarchical system of organizing works of music that had guided music making for at least a century and a half.
He believed he had discovered a wholly new way of organizing sound, based in the use of twelve-note rows. Yet while this was indeed wholly new, its origins can be traced back in the work of earlier composers, such as Franz Liszt Richard WagnerGustav MahlerRichard Strauss and Max Reger. In the world of art, in the first decade of the 20th century, young painters such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse were causing a shock with their rejection of traditional perspective as the means of structuring paintings,   though the impressionist Monet had already been innovative in his use of perspective.
Also inKandinsky painted Bild mit Kreis Picture with a Circlewhich he later called the first abstract painting. This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, though they did not use the word itself.
However, the term "Expressionism" did not firmly establish itself until Furthermore, there have been expressionist writers of prose fiction, as well as non-German speaking expressionist writers, and, while the movement had declined in Germany with the rise of Adolf Hitler in the s, there were subsequent expressionist works.
Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it "overlapped with other major 'isms' of the modernist period: There was a concentrated Expressionist movement in early 20th century German theatre, of which Georg Kaiser and Ernst Toller were the most famous playwrights.
They looked back to Swedish playwright August Strindberg and German actor and dramatist Frank Wedekind as precursors of their dramaturgical experiments. Oskar Kokoschka 's Murderer, the Hope of Women was the first fully Expressionist work for the theatre, which opened on 4 July in Vienna.
The first full-length Expressionist play was The Son by Walter Hasenclever, which was published in and first performed in Inthe Parisian newspaper Le Figaro published F. Marinetti 's first manifesto. Modeled on Marx and Engels ' famous " Communist Manifesto "such manifestoes put forward ideas that were meant to provoke and to gather followers.
However, arguments in favor of geometric or purely abstract painting were, at this time, largely confined to "little magazines" which had only tiny circulations. Modernist primitivism and pessimism were controversial, and the mainstream in the first decade of the 20th century was still inclined towards a faith in progress and liberal optimism.
The arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology, science and philosophy.
The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time.
The use of photographywhich had rendered much of the representational function of visual art obsolete, strongly affected this aspect of modernism.
Le Corbusier thought that buildings should function as "machines for living in", analogous to cars, which he saw as machines for traveling in. Following this machine aesthetic, modernist designers typically rejected decorative motifs in design, preferring to emphasize the materials used and pure geometrical forms.
Louis, MissouriUnited States, is among the first skyscrapers in the world. This caused uproar on its first performance in Paris.
At this time though modernism was still "progressive", increasingly it saw traditional forms and traditional social arrangements as hindering progress, and was recasting the artist as a revolutionary, engaged in overthrowing rather than enlightening society.
This is often presented as an early example of a writer using the stream-of-consciousness techniquebut Robert Humphrey comments that Proust "is concerned only with the reminiscent aspect of consciousness" and that he "was deliberately recapturing the past for the purpose of communicating; hence he did not write a stream-of-consciousness novel.
The failure of the previous status quo seemed self-evident to a generation that had seen millions die fighting over scraps of earth: The birth of a machine age which had made major changes in the conditions of daily life in the 19th century now had radically changed the nature of warfare.
The traumatic nature of recent experience altered basic assumptions, and realistic depiction of life in the arts seemed inadequate when faced with the fantastically surreal nature of trench warfare.
The view that mankind was making steady moral progress now seemed ridiculous in the face of the senseless slaughter, described in works such as Erich Maria Remarque 's novel All Quiet on the Western Front Therefore, modernism's view of reality, which had been a minority taste before the war, became more generally accepted in the s.
In literature and visual art some Modernists sought to defy expectations mainly in order to make their art more vivid, or to force the audience to take the trouble to question their own preconceptions.
This aspect of modernism has often seemed a reaction to consumer culturewhich developed in Europe and North America in the late 19th century. Whereas most manufacturers try to make products that will be marketable by appealing to preferences and prejudices, high modernists rejected such consumerist attitudes in order to undermine conventional thinking.
The art critic Clement Greenberg expounded this theory of modernism in his essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch.Several texts published by writing masters gave instructions on the cutting of pens; of course, the final finishing would depend on the style of writing intended, according to whether a stroke of consistent width (as in some chancery hands) or a variety of broad and narrow strokes (as in secretary) was required.
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Several texts published by writing masters gave instructions on the cutting of pens; of course, the final finishing would depend on the style of writing intended, according to whether a stroke of consistent width (as in some chancery hands) or a variety of broad and narrow strokes (as in secretary) was required.