Road to independence

Kosovo Bosnia And Kosovo Kosovo Crisis Serbia Albania Balkans Since the collapse of the Soviet Empire inthe world has gone through a final massive wave of democratization in Europe, which was highlighted by the fact that many countries finally gained long sought independence and autonomy. Sudden change of governments resulted in increased tensions, economic meltdowns and violence in some cases, due to the ideological differences of the many groups within the European population. People who had been denied basic human rights and the ability to voice their opinions were finally granted such rights as the states were moving at a full speed towards free and representative democratic systems. The response from the international community was not single sided:

Road to independence

Singapore Table of Contents In the colonial government appointed Sir George Road to independence to head a commission to review the Singapore constitution and Road to independence a "complete political and constitutional structure designed to enable Singapore to develop as a self-contained and autonomous unit in any larger organization with which it may ultimately become associated.

It also proposed a single-chamber Legislative Assembly of thirty-two members, twenty-five of whom would be elected, and a nine-member council of ministers that would act as a cabinet. The governor retained his power to veto legislation.

The British government accepted the commission's recommendations, and the Rendel constitution went into effect in Februarywith elections scheduled for the Legislative Assembly for April Voters were to be automatically registered, which was predicted to greatly enlarge the size of the turnout over previous elections.

Although the new constitution was a long way from offering Singapore full independence, election fever gripped the country as new political alliances and parties were formed.

Marshall, who was a member of Singapore's small Jewish community, had studied law in Britain, fought with the Singapore Volunteer Corps during the Japanese invasion, and worked in the coal mines of Hokkaido as a prisoner of war. Under the leadership of Marshall, a staunch anticolonialist, the party campaigned for immediate independence within a merged Singapore and Malaya, abolishing the Emergency regulations, Malayanization of the civil service within four years by which time local officials would take over from colonial officialsmultiligualism, and Singapore citizenship for itsChina-born inhabitants.

Marshall, a powerful speaker, promised "dynamic socialism" to counter "the creeping paralysis of communism" as he denounced colonialism for its exploitation of the masses.

The party was formed by a group of British-educated, middle- class Chinese who had returned to Singapore in the early s after studying in Britain. Rajaratnam, the party sought to attract a following among the mostly poor and non-English-speaking masses. Lee had served as a legal adviser to a number of trade unions and, byhad earned a reputation for his successful defense of the rights of workers.

He also helped defend Chinese students arrested during the student demonstrations protesting national service. Lee, a fourth- generation Singaporean, was educated at Raffles Institution and Cambridge University, where he took a double first first-class honors in two subjects in law.

Through his work with the unions and student groups, Lee had made many contacts with anticolonialists, noncommunists and communists alike.

Present at the inauguration of the PAP were a number of noted communists and procommunists, including Fong Swee Suan and Devan Nair, who both joined the new party. The PAP proposed to campaign for repeal of the Emergency regulations, union with Malaya, a common Malayan citizenship, Malayanization of the civil service, and free compulsory education.

Ending colonialism, however, was the first priority of Lee and the PAP leadership, although they concluded this could be accomplished only with support from the Chinese-educated public and the communist-controlled trade unions. The PAP, calculating that a united front with the communists was necessary to end colonialism, declared itself noncommunist, neither pro- nor anticommunist, preferring to put off until after independence any showdown with the communists.

Meanwhile, two other political parties prepared to contest the upcoming election. The Progressive Party, whose leaders had earned a reputation as the "Queen's Chinese" for their procolonial positions and conservative economic policies, had little appeal for the masses of working-class Chinese who were newly enfranchised to vote in the election.

Automatic registration of voters had increased the electorate from 76, in to more thanShortly before the elections, wealthy and influential members of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce formed the new Democratic Party, which championed the causes of improved Chinese education, establishment of Chinese as an official language, and liberal citizenship terms for the China-born.

Although these issues appealed to Singapore's China-born lower classes, this same group was disenchanted with the party's conservative economic platform, which closely resembled that of the Progressive Party.

Election fever gripped Singapore during the month-long campaign, and the results of the April 2 contest sent shock waves as far as Britain, where it had been expected that the Progressive Party would win handily.

Three ex-officio members and two nominated members joined with the coalition, forming a group of seventeen in the thirty-two-member assembly. The Progressives won only four seats and the Democratic Party just two, in a clear rejection of colonial rule and procolonial politics.

Lim had the backing of organized labor and led the procommunist wing of the party while Lee led the noncommunist wing. The Labour Front government, with David Marshall as Singapore's first chief minister, faced serious problems from the start.

The communists launched a campaign of strikes and student unrest in an attempt to destabilize the government. Only about one-third of the strikes called in were for better wages and working conditions; the remainder were sympathy strikes or strikes to protest imprisonment of labor union officials.

Riots broke out on May 12 when police attempted to break up an illegal picket line formed by striking bus workers and Chinese school students. Four people were killed and thirty-one injured in that single incident, which became known as "Black Thursday.

In registering their union, the students agreed to the condition that the union keep out of politics; the communist leaders of the union, however, had no intention of keeping the agreement. Along with problems with labor and students, Marshall faced constant conflict with the colonial government over his determination not to be a figurehead controlled by the governor.

· Road to Independence. Although the new constitution was a long way from offering Singapore full independence, election fever gripped the country as new political alliances and parties were formed. Two former members of the Singapore Labour Party, Lim Yew Hock and Francis Thomas, and a prominent lawyer, David Marshall, formed a new political The protest against British taxes known as the "Boston Tea Party," (Library of Congress).

- The first of the Townshend Acts suspended New York's assembly until New Yorkers agreed to provide housing for the troops. The other acts placed duties, or import taxes, on various goods brought into the colonies, such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and  · Independence Day (Urdu: یوم آزادی ‬ ‎; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.

Road to independence

It commemorates the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign nation following the end of the British Raj in · Since the collapse of the Soviet Empire in , the world has gone through a final massive wave of democratization in Europe, which was highlighted by the fact that many countries finally gained long sought independence and autonomy.

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