The 18th century in particular saw a flourishing of the epistolary genre across numerous settings. Letter-writing manuals taught elite and commoner alike how to craft a wide variety of letters. Epistolary novels and stories filled bookshelves and magazines, as audiences enjoyed the titillation of reading the supposedly private correspondence of heroes and especially heroines. An ever-wider range of individuals participated in this literary culture, writing letters to families, friends, business partners, and fellow intellectuals.
The creation of Chikwakwa—which toured as well as created work in English and Zambian languages at its base—was a response to the mainly expatriate-dominated theatre that had prevailed before and immediately after independence inand it inspired other active groups, including Bazamai Theatre and Tikwiza Theatre.
Playwrights generally wrote with a strong political emphasis: Many amateur drama groups are active in the country, often creating local festivals and competitions for new writing, and—as in many other parts of the continent—Theatre for Development work is significant with, for instance, Kanyama Theatre and Mwananga Theatre.
The playwright Stephen Chifunyise, Zimbabwean by birth, was another major contributor to Zambian theatre both through his involvement with Chikwakwa and later as director of cultural services. He later made an equal contribution to the resurgent theatre in his home country.
A significant contribution was made by Michael Etherton, a founder of Chikwakwa, who later fell foul of the authorities and was deported. Zimbabwe Zimbabwewhich came relatively late to independence inalso had a dominant white theatre.
Interestingly, a major factor in creating a new Zimbabwean theatre grew out of the liberation struggle, where plays celebrating heroes of the anticolonial struggle and ambitions for the future—expressed through indigenous performance forms—were an integral part of the education of the guerrilla fighters in their camps.
While the old white theatre audience generally maintained its interest in Western theatrea new black audience created its own companies and repertoire. By the s a range of new work was present, performed by dynamic companies unafraid to criticize the new Zimbabwe when they felt it necessary.
Community theatre and Theatre for Development thrived in an experimental environmentexploring traditional forms and new creative methods, always with a radical voice. A vigorous theatre in Shona, Ndebele, and English chronicled that turbulence with energy and honesty.
South Africa South Africa achieved majority rule at the end of the 20th century, but a powerful alternative theatre articulated the struggle against apartheid from the mid-century onward. The authors of that play connected with two other important companies in South African theatre, through Simon, who was the inspirational director of the Market Theatre in Johannesburg where much of the most-challenging contemporary South African theatre had its rootsand Mtwa and Ngema, who were previously successful performers in the hugely popular touring theatre of Gibson Kente.
Ngema became a leading radical playwright with, among other plays, Asinamali! Paul Slabolepszy wrote extremely popular plays about the plight of poor white people of South Africa, and Bartho Smit wrote perceptively of the often anguished situation of the Afrikaner in South Africa.
Other notable Afrikaner playwrights were P. Though much of his work was melodramatic, its township location and audience ensured a political edge.
In the s musicals such as Ipi-Tombi and Umabatha a Zulu version of Macbeth by Welcome Msomi were commercial successes in South Africa and internationally, but they were often regarded as exploitative of African artists and culture.
Mda, Masitha Hoeane, and others took part in a strong Theatre for Development initiative in South Africa, a role of theatre that also had a strong and historical base in Botswana.
That group explored the theatrical potential of ritualmaking it relevant to modern concerns and using strong elements of physical performance, music, and dance. Its plot is macabre: In addition to French, playwrights on occasion work in the national language of Wolof.iridis-photo-restoration.com: Orientalism, Terrorism, Indigenism: South Asian Readings in Postcolonialism (): Pavan Kumar Malreddy: Books.
Goodman Gallery Johannesburg 3 February – 9 March Love Story – a seven-channel installation by Candice Breitz – interrogates the mechanics of identification and the conditions under which empathy is produced, prompting viewers to consider: Why is it that the same audiences that are driven to tears by fictional blockbusters, remain .
Postcolonial literature is the literature by people from formerly colonized countries.
It exists on all continents except Antarctica. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated people, and themes such as racialism and colonialism.
Introduction. The early modern period was a great golden age of letters and letter writing in many parts of the Atlantic world.
The 18th century in particular saw a flourishing of the epistolary genre across numerous settings. Literary Theory "Literary theory" is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature.
By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. The latest BP Podcast is up. You can listen on Libsyn, iTunes and iridis-photo-restoration.comly the easiest way to keep up the podcast since we don’t have a regular schedule is to subscribe at one of the links above.