Certifications are Awarded 33 40 16 50 Respondents who did not provide training were asked if they saw the need for a formal training. Overall, the most popular choice was for two evenings per week for six months.
At that time one of the major hopes, as stated by Pea and Soloway in a report for the U. Congress Office of Technology Assessmentwas that technology might be the factor to help "bridge the ever-widening gaps between schools and society" pp.
Much of the educational literature of years ago expressed concern regarding the relevancy of what the education system was able to provide with or without technology and many of the studies including this author's review concluded that the investigation of the impact of technology was just beginning Wellburn,p.
Later in the same year, Kerr stated that "those of us who try to foster the use of technology in the schools are often guilty of hubris: We start from a premise that the value of the new approach we urge is self-evident, and that teachers should naturally want to shift their ways radically to take advantage of the new.
Impatience is another characteristic of those interested in seeking transformation of the educational system through technology. Although there might not yet be a definitive conclusion since it is becoming apparent that the type of learning that technology best enhances is difficult to quantify Johnson,there are many research reports that indicate we now have a deeper understanding of how to maximize the benefit to learners through a variety of technology-rich educational environments.
Hopefully there is no longer any need for the impatient premise that the value of technology is self-evident since there is now a more significant body of research findings which support its usefulness. These studies also help us answer the important question: Such visions include helping s tudents "develop a broad, deep, and creative understanding Literature review training evaluation community, culture, economics and international politics, past and present, and acquire the social skills to work across differences and distances" Riel, by providing "an array of tools for acquiring information and for thinking and expression [allowing] more children more ways to enter the learning enterprise successfully.
These same experiences provide the skills that will enable students to live productive lives in the global, digital, information-based future they all face. These visionary perspectives on the purpose of the education system are similar to those that guide most of the literature reviewed in this paper.
Many of the studies describe goals Literature review training evaluation individualization, cooperation and collaboration, enhanced information evaluation, problem solving skills, and lifelong learning. These studies talk about students who become "better citizens, better consumers, better communicators, better thinkers - better people," Johnson, Writers such as RielMeansand Means and Olson relate these ideas to the educational reform that is taking place particularly in the U.
In addition to the visions described, it is also true that "students must feel comfortable with the tools of the Information Age" Peck and Dorricott, and that "individuals need to learn at higher rates of effectiveness and efficiency than ever before because of rapidly growing bodies of relevant information and the escalation of knowledge and skill requirements for most jobs.
Although the literature tends to deal with distance education applications of technology and traditional classroom applications of technology separately, many of the goals, techniques, and actual uses of technology overlap across the two domains and will probably do so to an even greater extent in the near future.
As students within both traditional and virtual 'classrooms' make greater use of the interactive power of computers e. Concepts such as "learning without limits" and "computer networks to extend educational opportunities and communications opportunities for people of all ages" Hiltz,xvi apply to all CMC learners, wherever they are situated.
In March ofthe ERIC Digest service performed a content analysis to determine trends in the field of educational technology over the previous year, and stated that "distance education is evident at almost every educational level in almost every sector.
This paper will look at the highlights of research related to technology in both traditional and distance education. Quantitative Research and Educational Technology As D'Ignazio describes it, "businesses have been building electronic highways while education has been creating an electronic dirt road.
And sometimes on a dirt road, it's just as easy to get out and walk. Peck and Dorricott describe schools as "rumbling along, virtually unchanged by the presence of computers. Swan and Mitrani, Jamieson McKenzie outlines a number of reasons why this might be the case.
His reasons include the lack of time and resources required to conduct the necessary research as well as the lack of an understanding of how such research findings could be used beneficially, for instance, to inform future implementations.
McKenzie also states that "the most substantial research into student learning with technologies has examined performance on lower order tasks and basic skills Too little work has been done measuring gains in higher order skills" He and many others who write on this topic Hawkins and Honey,Riel,Ehrmann,etc.
For this portion of the paper, key studies have been selected that do take an empirical look at the larger picture. More importantly, the questions asked and the types of technological interventions used to address those questions including support to the teachers involved were dealt with in a thorough and thoughtful manner.
The results are very promising.
Classroom-oriented studies Studies of technology in the classroom have tended to focus rather narrowly on very specific learning outcomes. Also, such studies rather frequently forget at least at the onset to take into account the need for ongoing support to the teachers, although almost all reports on technology in the classroom end up mentioning this factor in their discussion sections.
The following statements summarize these tendencies: Two classroom-oriented studies describing the larger picture The first two studies described are both large-scale longitudinal experiments where technology was deliberately introduced into classrooms as the independent variable of the investigation.
The integration of technology into the classroom and with the curriculum was a key focus in both studies, and both monitored discrete skills such as reading, writing, math, etc as well as observing many other indicators of learning and attitudinal changes related to the new technologies.
Each study also ensured that teachers were supported on an ongoing basis and not through simple one-shot workshops as they went through the technology-associated shifts in their modes of instruction.
Over students participated and their teachers received training which included not only the technological components of the program computers were placed in each classroom but also emphasized establishing a team environment with other teachers in the project.
Much of the students' daily routine involved self-paced interactions in a learning station environment. Standardized test scores indicated a positive and statistically significant result across all grades, schools and subjects, withthe largest effects appearing for students who had been in the program for more than one year.
When surveyed, none of the nine schools expressed dissatisfaction with the project, five were planning to expand their level of participation and nine new schools were about to become involved.GUIDELINES FOR HOW TO CARRY OUT AN ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH.
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