This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments IN THE course of writing this book, I have turned for assistance to the minds and hearts of many colleagues and most of the people close to me, and it is a deep pleasure to express my gratitude and admiration to them. Jonathan Loesberg, Paula Bennett, Suzanne Juhasz, and Jim Berg read multiple drafts of the book, engaging extensively in different ways, offering suggestions, asking probing questions, and participating in ongoing dialogues that helped me know my thoughts more fully. Their contributions were crucial for the success of the project.
The lighter or unstressed part of a foot, especially in quantitative verse; later, the accented syllable of a foot. A break in a verse caused by the ending of a word within a foot.
A masculine caesura follows the thesis or stressed part of a foot. A feminine caesura follows the arsis or caesura comes after the third half foot, which means in the second foot; a penthemimeral caesura, after the fifth half foot; a hepthemimeral caesura, after the seventh half foot; and so on.
A bucolic caesura, in dactylic hexameter, is a caesura occurring in the fourth foot, especially in pastoral poetry. The break caused by the coincidence of the end of a foot with the end of a word.
Bucolic diaeresis, a diaeresis occurring in the fourth foot, especially in pastoral poetry. The extension of the sentence beyond the limitations of the distich.
The heavier or stressed part of a foot in classical prosody, especially in quantitative verse; later, the unaccented syllable or syllables of a verse. Rhyme is the identity in sound of an accented vowel in a word, usually the last one accented, and of all consonantal and vowel sounds following it; with a difference in the sound of the consonant immediately preceding the accented vowel.
Rhyme deals exclusively with sounds and has nothing to do with spelling. The rhyming dictionary terminating this book is strictly phonetic and therefore logical and useful. Correct rhymes may be spelled alike: They may be spelled differently: In this case the spelling is immaterial.
So called "eye rhymes"—that is, words spelled alike that look alike but are pronounced differently—are not rhymes at all; they slip into versification, if at all, as consonance, which will be discussed later. That is, the incorrect rhyme earth, hearth so popular among English versifiers, is no more a rhyme than the following sets of words identically spelled, but pronounced differently: Identities do not rhyme, no matter what the spelling is; since the preceding consonantal sounds must differ.
The following are identities, and not rhymes: Sounds almost alike, after the identical accented vowel sounds, do not rhyme. These are properly called assonance and have not succeeded as a versification device in English.
Two of the above examples were taken directly out of songs nationally popular. Slovenly rhyming is one of the sure signs of mediocrity in versification.
Learn correct rhyming first; then, if you wish to break the rule you understand, that is your privilege. Among widely used "eye rhymes," which are not rhymes at all, but mere identities in spelling, are: RHYME earth, hearth; bare, are; north, forth; real, steal.
Bosom-blossom, was-grass are combinations of consonance and assonance; bliss-is is assonance; the others in the first list are consonance.
The first three pairs in the second set are acceptable consonance; real, steal is an attempt to rhyme a two-syllabled word with a one-syllabled one and has no justification from any standpoint.
Use consonance or assonance purposely, if desired; but always know that this is not correct rhyming. If the poet is tone-deaf as to sounds, it is best to rely upon the phonetic symbols above each group of rhyming words in the rhyming dictionary that terminates this book, or upon dictionary markings.
Many people cannot distinguish the obvious difference in sounds between this pair of words, which do not rhyme: Take away the th sound, and many people still hear no difference between this pair of words, which do not rhyme: Take away the r sound, and some people still hear no difference between this pair of words, which do not rhyme: If in doubt as to such off-rhymes, follow the phonetic markings.
A third common error in rhyming comes from such mispronunciations as dropping a terminal -g. These do not rhyme: They may be rhymed colloquially, that is, in quoted words, as follows: But unless writing colloquially, do not use such incorrect rhymes as those given first above. A similar error comes from ignoring the r sounds, which causes such off-rhymes as:It is getting to crunch time for finding a job.
I applied today at Staples in Portage and the local grocery store (Zinke's). Since teaching seems to be out of the question for the near future I want to find a job that offers a variety of different activities and/or steady work. Readbag users suggest that Poe_Rev_FA_08_V_guides is worth reading.
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