Received Aug 30; Accepted Dec This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Brenda Sabo, PhD, RN Abstract A review of the literature on the health of nurses leaves little doubt that their work may take a toll on their psychosocial and physical health and well being.
Nurses working in several specialty practice areas, such as intensive care, mental health, paediatrics, and oncology have been found to be particularly vulnerable to work-related stress. Several types of occupational stress have been identified, including burnoutcompassion fatigueand vicarious traumatization.
While the emphasis of this article is on compassion fatigue and its Experience of hope among caregivers concept conceptualization, the concepts of burnout and vicarious traumatization are also discussed. Two questions are posed for discussion: If so, is burnout a pre-condition for compassion fatigue; 2 What are the relationships between the types of occupational stress?
To what extent does non-resolution of compassion fatigue increase the risk for developing vicarious traumatization? Case examples are provided to support this discussion. Researchers exploring the nature of occupational stress among care providers, including nurses, physicians, social workers, and psychologists, have suggested that aspects of the therapeutic relationship, specifically empathy and engagement, which are fundamental components of nursing, play a role in the onset of the stress.
It is possible that ongoing exposure to these factors may lead nurses to experience compassion fatigue, one form of occupational stress.
In this article I will provide an overview of the concepts of burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious traumatisation see Table. While emphasis is placed on compassion fatigue and its underlying theory, an overview of the other two types of occupational stress, namely burnout and vicarious traumatisation, are also provided.
Following this overview I will address two questions: I will provide three scenarios to address these questions and enhance the discussion. Burnout Research now supports six work-life issues involving person-job mismatch as the most likely explanation for burnout.
Researchers have hypothesized three personality traits that contribute to burnout. The big five is considered to be an empirical-based phenomenon describing personality traits rather than a theoretical model Goldberg, These traits tend to occur in groupings in many individuals but are not always present together.
It is conceivable that certain traits may predispose individuals to increased risk for the development of stress; however further research is necessary to demonstrate whether a causal link exists.
Additional factors that may influence burnout include work-related and organizational characteristics. Examples include job-related stressors e. For example, restructuring within healthcare institutions may result in nurses being moved from one service to another.
The mistaken belief that a nurse is a nurse may result in the individual feeling increasing stress. When this shift takes place without adequate orientation and ongoing educational and resource support, the nurse may be at increased risk for experiencing burnout.
Early conceptualization and research on burnout focused on the relationship between the care provider and care recipient as a necessary element in the development of burnout. In particular, the relationship was seen to contribute to emotional exhaustion which was thought to be the root cause of burnout.
Research now supports six work-life issues involving person-job mismatch as the most likely explanation for burnout. An offshoot of burnout, the term compassion fatigue first reflected the adverse psychosocial consequences experienced by emergency room nurses in a study exploring burnout Joinson, Researchers have suggested that the phenomenon is connected to the therapeutic relationship between the healthcare provider and patient, in that the traumatic or suffering experience of the patient triggers a response, on multiple levels, in the provider.
The dominant theoretical model postulating the emergence of compassion fatigue draws on a stress-process framework Adams, et al. Key elements within this model include empathic ability, empathic response, and residual compassion stress.
The model is based on the assumption that empathy and emotional energy are the critical elements necessary for the formation of a therapeutic relationship and a therapeutic response.
Empathic concern and empathic ability on the part of care providers, such as nurses, produce an empathic response which may result in compassion stress residue of emotional energy.
Limitations of this model include an emphasis on a linear direction, along with the binary dimension of compassion fatigue, i. This binary dimension seems antithetical to human behavioral responses where individuals may express varying degrees of response.We will write a custom essay sample on The Concept Analysis of Pain specifically for you for only $ $/page.
uncomfortable experience. Concept analysis is one way to clarify the definition of pain. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of pain.
Experience of Hope Among Caregivers. In analyzing the concept of resilience among caregivers of children with chronic conditions, a new definition has emerged.
This paper defines “resilience of a caregiver” as follows: resilience is a process of interaction between a caregiver and the environment and is a balance between protective factors and risk factors.
Experience of Hope Among Caregivers: Concept Analysis The term hope refers to undetectable strength that permits us to overcome our weaknesses, boosts us up when we fall, and continue to motivate us to move forward in any given situation.
Hope, hopelessness and fatigue are important experiences for patients and family members in palliative care. The aim of the study was to describe the level of and relation between hope, hopelessness and fatigue in patients and family members in palliative care.
Hope is an important psychosocial resource that has been found to support family caregivers. In order to further understand the challenges of caregivers and their hope experience, we analyzed, using Cortazzi’s () narrative analysis approach, journal entries of .
Research into the role of personal characteristics, such as resilience and hope, as well as the nature of the relationship among families, patients, and nurses, and also the fit within Figley’s model of compassion fatigue, may help to add clarity and depth to a one-dimensional model.