Elizabeth Ralston, Ronald A. Mays Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which socioeconomic factors, demographic factors, parent and student attitudes, and parent involvement were associated with math achievement. Students in Grade 5 were selected as the population for this study. Random sampling procedures were used to select the sample.
Renal Disease Mortality in the U.
Social, behavioral, and medical factors that predict specific causes of deaths may vary across countries. Current study aimed to determine social, behavioral, and medical characteristics that predict kidney disease mortality in general population in the United States.
The study followed 3, adults over age of 25 for up to 25 years. Main outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and national death index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the associations between baseline demographic age, gender, and racesocial education, income, employmentbehavioral exercise, drinking, smokingand medical hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, and self-rated health factors and renal disease mortality.
In multivariable model, race, age, drinking, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes at baseline predicted deaths due to renal disease. Gender, education, income, employment, exercise, self-rated health, and depression did not predict the outcome.
Baseline characteristics can inform who is at higher risk of renal disease mortality over the next 25 years. Race, age, drinking, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes at baseline can all inform programs to reduce burden of kidney disease.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. Background Cross-country studies have shown that demographic, social, behavioral, and medical correlates of health outcomes vary across countries 1 - 4.
As a result, there is a need for local studies on demographic, social, behavioral, and medical risk factors of chronic kidney disease CKD and end stage renal disease ESRD that ultimately cause mortality due to renal diseases 5 - 7. Race 7age 89gender 10low socioeconomic status 11life style 12and medical risk factors 13 are all associated with morbidity and mortality due to CKD and ESRD.
Although renal disease is a worldwide health problem 14the epidemiological pattern and correlates of CKD and ESRD vastly differ in low income versus high income countries 1516suggesting a need for demographic, social, behavioral, and medical risk factors of renal disease mortality in the U.
Demographic groups differ in epidemiology and course of CKD In United States, race is a main determinant of mortality due to renal diseases 7 Blacks have higher rate and burden of chronic kidney disease than Whites 7 Compared to Whites, Blacks are times more likely to develop kidney failure.
Age is also a main determinant of CKD, as the condition is more common among elderly than adults 89. Gender is also another demographic determinant of CKD 1020 with more men than women developing ESRD and requiring renal replacement therapy every year Low socioeconomic status is also another determinant of CKD There is compelling body of evidence showing that economic and social disadvantage and low resources markedly increase the burden of CKD, particularly those unrecognized and untreated Not only CKD is more common among the socially disadvantaged groups, poverty also bear a disproportionate burden of CKD as low SES individuals have worse CKD outcomes, suggesting that poverty may alter beyond the traditional risk factors and may be a vulnerability factor for CKD-associated complications Life style factors also influence increase risk of chronic kidney disease 12 For instance, epidemiological studies have suggested that participating in vigorous physical activity may protect against kidney disease 24 - Smoking also increases the risk of CKD, particularly those classified as hypertensive nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy.
When compared to nonsmokers, current smokers have an increased risk of having CKD, while former smokers did not have a statistically significant difference Medical and clinical factors also increase risk of the conditions For instance, the effects of hypertension 13diabetes 28and obesity 2930 on CKD are all well known.
Self-rated health SRH also predicts all-cause 31cardiovascular 32cancer 33and stroke 34and renal 35 mortality. Not only SRH informs about risk of subsequent mortality 31it also predicts outcomes associated with renal diseases Finally, depression predicts renal disease and associated outcomes 6 Objectives To extend the current knowledge on psychosocial and medical determinants of renal disease mortality, this study was aimed to determine social, behavioral, and medical characteristics that predict kidney disease mortality in general population in the United States.
As ACL has enrolled a nationally representative sample, our results are generalizable to the U. Detailed information on the study design is available elsewhere 38 Sampling and Participants The ACL enrolled a stratified multistage probability sample of adults ages 25 or above who lived in the continental U.
Measures Data were collected on baseline demographic characteristics, socio-economic factors, health behaviors, and health via face to face interview in Mortality due to renal diseases was collected from to Race In this study, race was defined as non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white.
All Hispanic individuals were dropped from this analysis.socioeconomic status are a good indicator of their knowledge about ORT use, and health care Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Maternal Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) and Dispensary Treatment for Diarrhea among Children Under Five Years Old: Pakistan DHS () By.
four Zambia Demographic Health Surveys (ZDHS) of , , and provided by MEASURE DHS. Findings indicate that infertility prevalence in Zambia declined from % in to % in Further, the study established that age, and type of residence (rural or urban) are closely associated with infertility (P.
most risk factors associated with CKD fluctuated over the same time period. Since a variety of demographic and socioeconomic fac- tors are related to the successful implementation of guidelines for preventing and managing CKD, individually tailored prevention ac-.
Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Academic Performance Essay. ABSTRACT. This paper intends to study the demographic and socio-economic factors associated with the academic performance of students in Sherubtse College - Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Academic Performance Essay introduction.
Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the s Shea O. Rutstein1 The s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries.
Various socioeconomic factors were reported to be associated with receiving surgical treatment in localized, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in previous studies.