When do inequalities cause conflict? This question has occupied the minds of thinkers and practitioners for many years. The common-sense argument sounds convincing:
Many estimates of the number of substantive generals of actual grade, or "rank," are within about 10 names Civil divides can create a war each other. A recent compilation by John and David Eicher show most historians who have studied the number have concluded that between and substantive-grade Union generals and between and substantive-grade Confederate generals were properly appointed, confirmed, accepted appointment and served as general officers.
The inclusion of entire other categories of "generals," such as those who acted as generals but did not receive appointments, state militia generals, Union brevet generals and even some others, can add more names to the lists. The Union generals' list currently contains or is in the process of adding the actual grade and brevet grade of prominent Union officers who were awarded brevet general grade but not appointed as full substantive grade generals.
Some names of others whose claims or identifications to general officer grade have often been accepted by historians and compilers of generals' lists are also included in the lists.
Notes that identify officers who did not strictly meet the criteria for appointment and confirmation as generals or inclusion in the lists, even though they have been widely identified as generals, are noted in the lists.
In the early 20th century, the United States War Department prepared and Congressional committees published two memoranda which list the full rank substantive Confederate generals and the full rank substantive Union generals and the brevet rank Union generals, their grades and dates of appointment.
Wrightwho had been engaged to collect Confederate records in particular. Although they are unsigned, they are often referred to as his work because it was known he had been engaged in the task and he included the lists in books he wrote at about the same time.
These memos showed actual, substantive generals of various grades or levels were duly appointed by the President of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis and confirmed by the Confederate Senate for the Confederate Army and actual, substantive generals of various grades or levels were appointed by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln and confirmed by the United States Senate for the Union Army during the course of the American Civil War.
Most historians, such as the Eichers, believe these numbers should be reduced by about 25 names each to account for canceled appointments and unconfirmed nominations. The problems with the appointment or confirmation of these officers are even noted on General Wright's lists, but he still included them as general officers.
More significant disparities exist concerning the number of militia generals and "might have beens"  who various historians also think should, or perhaps should not, be counted or recognized in some manner as Civil War generals for various reasons, including especially exercise of general officer responsibilities for some period of time.
Actual full rank generals required Presidential appointment, Senate confirmation[ edit ] Union Army[ edit ] A general officer of the Union Armywhether of the United States Regular Army or United States Volunteersand whether of full or brevet grade or rankcould legally be promoted to a grade of general officer only by appointment by the President of the United States and confirmation by the United States Senate.
Field promotions, exercise of command duties or brevet grade promotions alone were insufficient to qualify an officer as an actual, substantive grade general. Officers holding rank on the date of enactment of the first Confederate law on the subject of appointment of general officers, May 21,were permitted to keep those ranks.
A complicating factor for the Confederate Armies, was their reliance on, and organization around, standing State Militias.
A senior officer might hold the rank of general in his state militia, as a separate matter from any prior rank. In most states, the rank of general at the level of a state militia was conferred by the State's Governor.
Some of those state appointments predated the start of the Civil War and some occurred after. Not all the State Militia appointments to the rank of general were translated into the same rank at the level of the Confederacy. As a result, while the Union and Confederate rules for the rank of general were similar, the CSA experienced a greater diversity at this rank in practice.
As noted, while General Wright, Ezra J. Warner and other historians profess to use these criteria to identify Civil War generals, in fact they have inconsistently included about 25 names of officers for each army who do not actually meet the criteria and it is now difficult not to take note of at least these extra officers in lists of Civil War generals.
Identification of general officers in Civil War service[ edit ] Although the Eichers take a stricter view of which Civil War officers should be considered full grade generals, Ezra J.
Warner and other historians have accepted the individuals shown in the General Wright War Department memos as the officers who should be included in lists of actual Civil War generals.
Warner decided to accept them as full grade generals. Warner based his conclusion on the actual appointment of almost all of them, the confirmation of some of them, political considerations which may have led to the cancellations or failure of confirmations and because they seem to have exercised command.
These commands were exercised mostly for longer periods of time than the periods of time which those officers who exercised such commands on a temporary or emergency basis usually acted and who usually were not appointed or nominated as general officers by the respective presidents at all.
In doing so, they have often identified officers who were not full generals but who are notable and may deserve recognition for their actions in high commands.
A few other officers in both armies who received only temporary general officer appointments or who had been killed in action or mortally wounded before they could be advised that their appointments as generals had been confirmed are also on these lists.The Civil War A Civil War is a war between opposing groups of citizens from the same country.
In , two parts of America went to war against each other. After 4 years, the Union won.
Many people died on both sides, and the South suffered terribly. No one expected the Civil War to be long. It beca. Can Dinner Parties Make America Great Again? From culinary diplomacy to feeding the resistance, people are turning to shared meals as a way to communicate across political and cultural divides.
Somalia - Civil war: Somalia’s defeat in the Ogaden War strained the stability of the Siad regime as the country faced a surge of clan pressures. An abortive military coup in April paved the way for the formation of two opposition groups: the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), drawing its main support from the Majeerteen clan of the Mudug region in central Somalia, and the Somali.
ENGL Michael J. Pettengell William H Brooks III March 1, “Civil Divides Can Create a War within a Movement” In the quest of creating a movement many wars must be fought, and yet only the visible wars are recognized, many unseen events are absent from our history of today.
ENGL Michael J. Pettengell William H Brooks III July 19, “Civil Divides Can Create a War within a Movement” In the quest of creating a movement many wars must be fought, and yet only the visible wars are recognized, many unseen events are absent from our history of today.
After watching The Civil War: A Nation Divided, discuss how regional differences contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War. The following questions will help guide the conversation. How did the economies of the North and South differ before the Civil War?
(The North was industrialized; the South.