Reconstruction in Practice Improvements in Transportation The period between the end of the War of and the Civil War was a time of swift improvement in transportation, rapid growth of factories, and significant development of new technology to increase agricultural production. Americans moved with relative ease into new regions and soon produced an agricultural surplus that changed them from subsistence farmers into commercial producers. Manufacturing became an increasingly important sector of the economy and set the stage for rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth century. The economic and technological developments brought important changes to American society.
Despite strong local Copperhead sympathies, the proposal was not well received. The city provided a major source of troops, supplies, equipment, and financing for the Union Army. Powerful New York politicians and newspaper editors helped shape public opinion toward the war effort and the policies of President Abraham Lincoln.
The port of New Yorka major entry point for immigrants, served as recruiting grounds for the Army. The " Draft Riots ", the worst in American history, targeted blacks and wealthy Republicans.
It was suppressed by artillery units of the United States Army firing grapeshot that killed and wounded hundreds of rioters. Edwin Booth and Lillian Russell were among the Broadway stars. Most of the new arrivals headed to destinations across the north and west, but many made New York City their destination.
European immigration brought further social upheaval, and old world criminal societies rapidly exploited the already corrupt municipal machine politics of Tammany Hall.
Housing, especially in the southern tip of Manhattan, became crowded with newly built tenements and flimsy shacks in the back.
These resulted in more than 33 deaths and many wounded.
Roosevelt lost his mayoral race in Reformers did win inand Roosevelt undertook a major reform of the New York City Police Department in —97 during his term as President of the Police Commissioners.
Horse manure covered the streets. In winter, when all the grime froze, walking on the sidewalks was a challenge. Dead pigs and other carcasses remained on the street for weeks. From Aprilwith the passage of a city charter consolidating power in the hands of his political allies, Tweed and his cronies were able to defraud the city of some tens of millions of dollars over the next two years and eight months, most famously with the construction bill for a lavish courthouse.
The efforts of reform-oriented Democratic politicians, especially Samuel J. Tildenas well as aggressive newspaper editors aided by the biting cartoons of Thomas Nasthelped elect opposition candidates in Tweed was convicted of forgery and larceny in Reforms demanded a general housecleaning, and former county sheriff "Honest John" Kelly was selected as the new leader.
Kelly was not implicated in the Tweed scandals and was a religious Catholic related by marriage to Archbishop John McCloskey. His success at revitalizing the machine was such that in the election ofthe Tammany candidate, William H. Wickhamunseated the unpopular reformist incumbent, William F. Havemeyerand Democrats generally won their races, delivering control of the city back to Tammany Hall.
He explains how the machine worked: The organization of a party in our city is really much like that of an army. There is one great central boss, assisted by some trusted and able lieutenants; these communicate with the different district bosses, whom they alternately bully and assist.
The district boss in turn has a number of half-subordinates, half-allies, under him; these latter choose the captains of the election districts, etc. Department stores[ edit ] In modern major cities, the department store made a dramatic appearance in the middle of the 19th century and permanently reshaped shopping habits and the definition of service and luxury.
Similar developments were underway in Paris and London. London and Paris were developing department stores around the same time, and the leaders quickly adopted innovations. Increasingly, the clientele were women from wealthy or upper-middle-class families.
His innovations included buying from manufacturers for cash and in large quantities, keeping his markup small and prices low, truthful presentation of merchandise, the one-price policy so there was no hagglingsimple merchandise returns and cash refund policy, selling for cash and not credit, buyers who searched worldwide for quality merchandise, departmentalizationvertical and horizontal integration, volume sales, and free services for customers such as waiting rooms and free delivery of purchases.
His innovations were quickly copied by other department stores. Furthermore, ambitious young women from the middle class who wanted a career were welcomed into the clerical ranks, where they developed social skills to work with their upscale customers. Construction required several major innovations, including the elevator and structural steel.
The steel skeleton, developed in the s, replaced the heavy brick walls that were limited to 15 or so stories in height.
The skyscraper also required a complex internal structure to solve issues of ventilation, steam heat, gas lighting and later electricityand plumbing. The apartment building came first, as middle-class professionals, businessmen, and white-collar workers realized they did not need and could scarcely afford single-family dwellings in the high-cost real estate districts of the city.
Boarding houses were inappropriate for family; hotel suites were too expensive.TIMELINE: accompanying the Seminar Toolbox British burn Buffalo, New York. British burn Washington, DC, including the White House. John Quincy Adams (Natl.
Rep.) is elected president by House of Rep. Elias Boudinot, a Cherokee. of New York’s manufacturing in was greater than the manufacturing output of all the Southern states combined; the North had more railroads than the South/rail lines made more connections between the Midwest and the North than between the Midwest and the South;.
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