In a book, "The Mismeasure of Man," the paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould asserted that Morton, believing that brain size was a measure of intelligence, had subconsciously manipulated the brain volumes of European, Asian and African skulls to favor his bias that Europeans had larger brains and Africans smaller ones. But now physical anthropologists at the University of Pennsylvania, which owns Morton's collection, have remeasured the skulls, and in an article that does little to burnish Dr. Gould's reputation as a scholar, they conclude that almost every detail of his analysis is wrong. Gould, who died inbased his attack on the premise that Morton believed that brain size was correlated with intelligence.
January 21, -page Now, in order to account for the intuitive differences between conceptual and sensory representations, representationalists appeal to their structural or functional differences.
Dretskefor example, distinguishes experiences and thoughts on the basis of the origin and nature of their functions: Rey takes both thoughts and experiences to be relations to sentences in the language of thought, and distinguishes them on the basis of the functional roles of such sentences' constituent predicates.
Lycandistinguishes them in terms of their functional-computational profiles.
Tye distinguishes them in terms of their functional roles and the intrinsic structure of their vehicles: Phenomenalists tend to make use of the same sorts of features function, intrinsic structure in explaining some of the intuitive differences between thoughts and experiences; but they do not suppose that such features exhaust the differences between phenomenal and non-phenomenal representations.
For the phenomenalism, it is the phenomenal properties of experiences - Qualia themselves - that constitute the fundamental difference between experience and thought.
Peacockefor example, develops the notion of a perceptual 'scenario' an assignment of phenomenal properties to coordinates of a three-dimensional egocentric spacewhose content is 'correct' a semantic property if in the corresponding 'scene' the portion of the external world represented by the scenario properties are distributed as their phenomenal analogues are in the scenario.
Another sort of representation championed by phenomenalists e. Phenomenal concepts are postulated to account for the apparent fact among others that, as McGinn puts it, 'you cannot form [introspective] concepts of conscious properties unless you yourself instantiate those properties.
Jacksonand Nagel Though imagery has played an important role in the history of philosophy of mind, the important contemporary literature on it is primarily psychological.
In a series of psychological experiments done in the s summarized in Kosslyn and Shepard and Coopersubjects' response time in tasks involving mental manipulation and examination of presented figures was found to vary in proportion to the spatial properties size, orientation, etc.
A detailed analysis of vocabulary size provides a quantitative case study of how modern human language exceeds any plausible demands of survival and social reciprocity. the theory’s limitations. 'The mating mind' offers a shap-shot of a provisional theory under construction. The language instinct. The drive reduction theory of motivation became popular during the s and s as a way to explain behavior, learning, and motivation. The theory was created by behaviorist Clark Hull and further developed by his collaborator Kenneth Spence. 2 7 Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed to explain most human motivation, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory MOTIVATION IN EDUCATION Motivation in Education Stirling 2 of academic motivation studies.
The question of how these experimental results are to be explained has kindled a lively debate on the nature of imagery and imagination. Kosslyn claims that the results suggest that the tasks were accomplished via the examination and manipulation of mental representations that they have spatial properties - i.
Others, principally Pylyshyn,argue that the empirical facts can be explained in terms exclusively of discursive, or propositional representations and cognitive processes defined over them. Pylyshyn takes such representations to be sentences in a language of thought.
The idea that pictorial representations are literally pictures in the head is not taken seriously by proponents of the pictorial view of imagery.
The claim is, rather, that mental images represent in a way that is relevantly like the way pictures represent. Attention has been focussed on visual imagery - hence the designation 'pictorial'; though of course there may imagery in other modalities - auditory, olfactory, etc. The distinction between pictorial and discursive representation can be characterized in terms of the distinction between analog and digital representation Goodman For one thing, there may be nonphenomenal properties of representations that vary continuously.
Moreover, there are ways of understanding pictorial representation that presuppose neither phenomenality nor analogicity. According to Kosslyn,a mental representation is 'quasi-pictorial' when every part of the representation corresponds to a part of the object represented, and relative distances between parts of the object represented are preserved among the parts of the representation.
But distances between parts of a representation can be defined functionally rather than spatially - for example, in terms of the number of discrete computational steps required to combine stored information about them. Tye proposes a view of images on which they are hybrid representations, consisting both of the pictorial and discursive elements.
On Tye's account, images are ' labelled interpreted symbol-filled arrays.Jan 21, · Covariance theories, as well as telelogical theories that invoke an historical theory of functions, take content to be determined by 'external' factors.
Crossing the atomist-holistic distinction with the Internalist-externalist distinction. Anomie theory. Robert K. Merton's theory of deviance which holds that many forms of deviance are caused by a disjunction between society's goals and the approved means to achieve these goals; also called "structural strain theory." Instinct.
A genetically fixed pattern of complex behavior (that is, beyond reflex) which appears in all normal. Attachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby, is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for understanding interpersonal relationships between human beings.
Attachment theorists consider children to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development. 2 7 Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed to explain most human motivation, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory MOTIVATION IN EDUCATION Motivation in Education Stirling 2 of academic motivation studies.
Psychology Psych. of Personality 6 – 1 – 99 Tuesday/ 1 st Lecture · Woll will described Personality as a broad subject and discuss all the theories that go with it, including achievement, authoritarian (WWII) personality and Manifest Anxiety.
The drive reduction theory of motivation became popular during the s and s as a way to explain behavior, learning, and motivation. The theory was created by behaviorist Clark Hull and further developed by his collaborator Kenneth Spence. According to the theory, the reduction of drives is the primary force behind motivation.