Summary Introduction Optics is the branch of physics which deals with the study of optical phenomena. Optics can be divided into two categories, which is Ray optics and Wave optics. Wave optics deals with the connection of waves and rays of light. It is used when the wave characteristics of light are taken in account.
Huygens—Fresnel principle and geometrical optics Fourier optics is the study of classical optics using Fourier transforms FTsin which the waveform being considered is regarded as made up of a combination, or superpositionof plane waves.
It has some parallels to the Huygens—Fresnel principlein which the wavefront is regarded as being made up of a combination of spherical wavefronts whose sum is the wavefront being studied.
A key difference is that Fourier optics considers the plane waves to be natural modes of the propagation medium, as opposed to Huygens—Fresnel, where the spherical waves originate in the physical medium.
A curved phasefront may be synthesized from an infinite number of these "natural modes" i. Far from its sources, an expanding spherical wave is locally tangent to a planar phase front a single plane wave out of the infinite spectrumwhich is transverse to the radial direction of propagation.
In this case, a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is created, which emanates from a single spherical wave phase center.
In the near field, no single well-defined spherical wave phase center exists, so the wavefront isn't locally tangent to a spherical ball. In this case, a Fresnel diffraction pattern would be created, which emanates from an extended source, consisting of a distribution of physically identifiable spherical wave sources in space.
In the near field, a full spectrum of plane waves is necessary to represent the Fresnel near-field wave, even locally. A "wide" wave moving forward like an expanding ocean wave coming toward the shore can be regarded as an infinite number of " plane wave modes ", all of which could when they collide with something in the way scatter independently of one other.
These mathematical simplifications and calculations are the realm of Fourier analysis and synthesis — together, they can describe what happens when light passes through various slits, lenses or mirrors curved one way or the other, or is fully or partially reflected.
Fourier optics forms much of the theory behind image processing techniquesas well as finding applications where information needs to be extracted from optical sources such as in quantum optics. To put it in a slightly more complex way, similar to the concept of frequency and time used in traditional Fourier transform theoryFourier optics makes use of the spatial frequency domain kx, ky as the conjugate of the spatial x, y domain.
Terms and concepts such as transform theory, spectrum, bandwidth, window functions and sampling from one-dimensional signal processing are commonly used.Optics, science concerned with the genesis and propagation of light, the changes that it undergoes and produces, and other phenomena closely associated with iridis-photo-restoration.com are two major branches of optics, physical and geometrical.
Physical optics deals primarily with the nature and properties of light itself. Optical Sciences & Engineering. OPTICS, LASERS & PHOTONICS DICTIONARIES, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, GLOSSARIES RP PHOTONICS ENCYCLOPEDIA: AN OPEN ACCESS ENCYCLOPEDIA FOR PHOTONICS AND LASER TECHNOLOGY - RP Photonics Consulting GmbH, Bad Dürrheim, Deutschland (Germany) Multimedia RP Photonics Encyclopedia: An Open Access .
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FHSST Authors1 December 9, 1See iridis-photo-restoration.com A video instructional series on physics for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 52 half-hour video programs and coordinated books. Optics, the branch which is the study of light phenomena is divided into two-ray optics and wave optics.
Wave Optics deals with the study of various phenomenal behaviors of light like reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarization etc. Huygens mentioned that light travels in the form of waves.