Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities:
The authors studied and compared the Reform of China and the Meiji Restoration in an attempt to determine and show the different characteristics and influence, mainly from three aspects: However, people seem to have forgotten that is also the th anniversary of the Meiji Restoration, which greatly influenced the reform of in China.
So, as to our knowledge, there is no report of comparative study on the two important reforms in the modern history A discussion of fukuzawa yukichiss intellectual biases China and Japan, we wish to remedy the regrettable defect.
As is well known, the Meiji Restoration and later reforms changed Japan rapidly from a feudal country to a modern state. His plans for reform,which he proposed to model after the Meiji example, included 1 the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, 2 the creation of a parliament, and 3 the formation of a modern system of education.
It is true that the Meiji leaders did achieve great success in these three areas. Kang Youwei, emphasizing on these three points mainly, attempted to construct a modern state like Meiji Japan. In this way, the early Meiji experience greatly influenced the reform of in China.
We believe,however, that the differences between the two reforms are far more numerous than the similarities. Our purpose, therefore, is to focus on the basic differences in the ideas and democratic thoughts of the two reforms and examine their historical backgrounds.
But revering the Emperor soon came to mean the same thing as "overthrowing the Bakufu" tobaku. In fact, Japan and China had rather different political structures.
All high officials were appointed directly by the Emperor and had to obey his orders absolutely. In China,therefore,there was no Bakufu which had to be overthrown;thus the Emperor could not gain new recognition and respect by destroying an unpopular government.
Possessing a more progressive spirit than the old bakufu officials and impressed by the modern Western civilization, they devoted all their efforts to introduce Western political, economic and educational systems into Japan.
After suffering defeats at the hands of the Franco-British forces in the Second Opium WarChina set up the Zongli Yamen Board of Foreign Affairs in Beijing in to improve relations with the Western nations and to introduce modern science and technology.
This was the high point of the industrialization movement. Japan won an overwhelming victory in the Sino-Japanese War of But one might say that, rather than beating China with military power, Japan defeated her with modern systems. Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, shocked by that defeat,criticized the industrialization movement; they believed that unless the government undertook thorough reforms, as Japan had done after the Meiji Restoration, it would be virtually impossible to rescue China from its deepening crisis Kang, ; Liang, The reforms of followed swiftly.
But although following the Meiji model, the reformers could not reproduce the social conditions and historical background that existed in Japan at the time of the Meiji Restoration. As we said, the Meiji Restoration was a set of changes that occurred under the slogan of "revering the Emperor and overthrowing the Bakufu".
These changes overturned the feudal Bakufu and created the new Meiji Government. The reforms of in China,on the other hand, were carried out by a group of progressive intellectuals without real power who persuaded the Guang Xu Emperor to proclaim these superficial reforms while leaving the traditional system undisturbed.
The reforms were not only out of touch with reality but the entire plan,contained in 67 government ordinances issued during the "hundred days" June 11 - September 21was blocked by conservative bureaucrats and amounted to little more than scraps of paper.
In addition, the real power in the government, Dowager Empress Ci Xi, would never permit radical reforms which posed a threat to the political position and special privileges of the Manzhou nobles. It was thus no easy task to advance the reform movement in the face of the powerful reactionary forces.
In short, any reform was absolutely impossible to introduce without first overthrowing the traditional feudal system. If the Restoration had preserved the complex feudal system of Tokugawa in Japan, it is doubtful whether the Meiji leaders could have had any real chance of success.
In the Meiji Government issued the Five-Article Charter Oath in which the concepts of constitutional and parliamentary government were first hinted at by an article which says that "all matters shall be decided by open discussion".
In the years that followed,many Japanese scholars were actively concerned with modern Western thought and were striving to introduce it as rapidly as possible. The ideas of Mill and Spencer found favor with the gradualist advocates of democratic thought, while Rousseau appealed more to the intellectuals of a radical persuasion.
The ideological debate between these two groups discussed whether an English-style constitutional monarchy should be introduced into Japan, or whether the French republican system of democracy was more appropriate.
The democratic thought of modern Japan was thus developed by many who offered positive ideas. In this book he advocated the thesis of a political system in historical progression from absolutism to constitutional monarchy, and from constitutional monarchy to democratic republicanism.
His principal objective was to root out the retrogressive Confucian view of history, which Chinese intellectuals had accepted, that political systems had degenerated from the Xia to the Shang, and from the Shang to the Zhou dynasty. But ideas that were rooted in Confucianism, as his were, could not escape the fact that, conceptually, they were pre-modern.
It can hardly be called scientific and democratic thought, but was in fact, a kind of utopianism Kang, In other words, the ideas of modern parliamentary government were contained in Confucianism. His ideas closely resembled those of Rousseau, but he was actually in no way influenced by Rousseau.
But Confucianism remained the real basis of his thought. After the Bakufu collapsed, however, most Japanese intellectuals rejected Confucianism and positively sought out the modern thought of the West. In contrast, Chinese intellectuals, while attempting to carry out the reforms that Japan had implemented earlier, did not reject traditional Confucianism, or criticize it.The Rise and Fall of the Japanese Empire, ss!!
Instructor: Wicky W. K. Tse E-mail: [email protected] military, diplomatic, and social as well as intellectual topics during the period under study but also to encourage students to explore and develop their Yukichi Fukuzawa (Author), Eiichi Kiyooka (Translator).
The. The Concept of Asia in Fukuzawa Yukichi's "Datsua ron" Fukuzawa's newspaper Jiji shinpō published "Datsua ron" as an editorial on Monday, March 16, It is composed of two paragraphs: the first paragraph expounds the inevitability of the spread of Western civilization; Fukuzawa likens it to an epidemic of measles.
Yukichi Fukuzawa Yukichi Fukuzawa (Columbia University Press, ) Review by Takenori Inoki Yukichi Fukuzawa, a major figure in the creation of modern Japan, was an outstanding intellectual whose thought was characterized throughout by its practical and concrete substance rather than by ideological and abstract discussion.
He was a. Jan 07, · Chase Parsons from Columbia was looking for happiness depends on ourselves essay Herbert Stevens found the answer to a search query happiness depends on ourselves.
FUKUZAWA Yukichi (II90I) is quite possibly the best-known, most widely studied, and most frequently quoted writer of the early Meiji period. More of his writings have been translated into English than those of any other non- literary Meiji writer. So much attention is given to Fukuzawa that he often appears as the Meiji intellectual.
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